Metallic Bonding: Definition, Types, & Properties (2022)

• Written By Pavithra VG

All the matters are made up of atoms. Metallic Bonding is a force that binds atoms in a metallic substance together. The atoms that the electrons leave behind become positive ions, and their interaction with valence electrons produces the cohesive or binding force that binds the metallic crystal together. The attractive force which holds together atoms, molecules, ions, or a combination of these is called a chemical bond. These are different types of bonds like a covalent bond, ionic bond, hydrogen bond, metallic bond, etc.

In this article, let us understand everything about metallic bonding, properties, and examples of a substance exhibiting metallic bonding.

Among $$118$$ elements present in the periodic table, more than $$80$$ elements are metals. Metals are hard solid, and they are made up of atoms. The atoms in a metal are very closely packed together.

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In simple words, the metallic bond is defined as the force that holds the atoms closely together in a metal. Metals are substances consisting of positively charged ions fixed in a crystal lattice with negatively charged electrons moving freely through the crystal.

Therefore, free electrons act as the cohesive force which holds the metal atoms together and forms a metallic bond. The bond produced due to the combination of the electrostatic force of attraction between the electrons and the positive nuclei of metal atoms is called a metallic bond.

Different Types of Chemical Bond

A chemical bond is some sort of interatomic attraction that holds the two atoms together. Atoms combine to acquire stability and a noble gas configuration, i.e., stable configuration. Apart from the metallic bond, there are other types of bonding in different compounds. They are:

1. Ionic bond: The electrostatic force of attraction which holds together ions of combining atoms formed by the complete transfer of one or more electrons from the electropositive to electronegative atom is called an ionic bond.
Example: Sodium chloride, Magnesium oxide, calcium chloride, etc., show this type of bonding.

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1. Covalent bond: The attractive force which comes into existence due to the mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms of similar electronegativity is having a small difference in electronegativities is called a covalent bond.
Example: Oxygen molecule, nitrogen molecule, carbon compounds, etc., exhibit covalent bond.
1. Coordinate bond: It is a covalent bond in which both the electrons of the shared pair come from one of the two combining atoms.
Example: Ozone, sulfur dioxide, etc., show coordinate bond.
1. Hydrogen bonding: The weak attractive force which binds the partially positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule, with the partially negatively charged atom of some other molecules of similar or different types, or with some other negative centers of the same molecule is referred to as hydrogen bond or hydrogen bonding.
Example: Hydrogen fluoride, water, etc., exhibit hydrogen bonding.

What is the Structure of a Metal Atom in a Metal?

The classical free electrons theory, or electron sea theory or electron sea model, was proposed by Drupe and later on developed by Lorentz. According to this, in metal, the metal atom is made up of two parts. They are,

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1. Electrons present in the valence shell are known as valence electrons which can be easily removed from the metal atom.
2. The rest of the atom is positively charged and is called a kernel. A kernel is the combination of a nucleus and all the shell electrons except the valence shell electrons.

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How is Metallic Bond Formed?

A metal is regarded as the sea of valence electrons in which positively charged kernels are supposed to be dipped with the direct linkage between kernels and valence electrons. Each kernel is surrounded by the number of valence electrons and vice versa. The valence electrons being very light, can move in the electron sea from one position to the other. The kernels being heavy, have comparatively negligible movement. The force of attraction between the positively charged kernels and the valence electron gives rise to the formation of metallic bonds.

Example: Sodium is a metal with the atomic number $$11$$. Its electronic configuration is $${\text{Na,}}\,\left({11} \right) – 2,\,8,\,1$$ or $${\text{1}}{{\text{s}}^{\text{2}}}{\text{,}}\,{\text{2}}{{\text{s}}^{\text{2}}}{\text{,}}\,{\text{2}}{{\text{p}}^{\text{6}}}{\text{,}}\,{\text{3}}{{\text{s}}^{\text{1}}}$$. Electronic configuration implies there is one in the valence shell. Sodium forms a cation, i.e., sodium ion $$\left({{\text{N}}{{\text{a}}^ + }} \right)$$ by the removal of one valence electron. These delocalized electrons result in the formation metallic bond between valence electrons and a positive metallic center (kernel).

Properties of Metallic Bonded Compounds

All the metals like gold, silver, iron, sodium, aluminium delocalised electrons are bonded by metallic bonds. Some of the properties of metallic bonded compounds are:

1. Meals are malleable (i.e., drawn into thin sheets) and ductile (i.e., drawn into thin wires) due to the valence electrons being very light can move in the electron sea from one position to the other in metal.
2. Metals have free electrons, which can transfer energy rapidly. Therefore metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.

3. Metals are lustrous due to the absorption of radiation by the valence electrons of the metal, and they also emit light as a reflection of the original light.
4. In metals, except in mercury, intermolecular force and intramolecular forces are the same. Therefore, metals are solids at room temperature.
5. When light or heat energy is more than the attractive forces, strikes on the metal surface, electrons are emitted from the metal surface. This phenomenon is called the photoelectric effect.
6. Bonding in the metals, i.e., the metallic bond is non-directional and weaker than a covalent bond.
7. Due to the strong intermolecular force of attraction, i.e., electrostatic force of attraction between the metal ion and free electrons, metals have a high melting point and boiling point.
8. Metals possess high tensile strength, that is they can stretch without breaking. It is due to the presence of strong electrostatic attraction between the positively charged kernel and the mobile electrons present around them.

(Video) Metallic Bonding and its properties 1

What are the Factors Affecting Metallic Bond?

The metal strength varies from metal to metal. Alkaline metals are soft that they can be cut with a knife. The metals like tungsten, iron, cobalt, etc., are quite hard. The hardness of metal depends upon the strength of the metallic bonds. As bond strength increases, the hardness of the metal also increases.

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According to the electron sea model, the strength of the metallic bond depends upon the following two factors.

1. The number of delocalised valence electron: The strength of the metallic bond increases with an increase in the number of delocalized valence electrons.
2. Size of the kernel: The strength of the metallic bond decreases with an increase in the size of the kernel.

Alkali metals possess only one valence electron, and their kernels are quite large. So, alkali metals have a weak metallic bond. Hence, alkali metals like sodium can be cut with a knife.

Summary

In this article, we learned that the force that holds the atoms closely together in metal is referred to as the metallic bond. Metals such as silver, iron, gold, aluminium are bonded by metallic bonds via delocalised electrons. Furthermore, we also learned that these bonds are non-directional, formed between the delocalised electrons and metal ions. Metalloid and alloys are also presented as metallic bonds. There are various factors affecting the strength of metallic bonds. The strength of the metal differs from metal to metal. We all know that alkaline metals are soft in nature whereas, metals like cobalt, iron, etc., are hard. The hardness of metal relies on the strength of the metallic bonds. The hardness of the metal increases as the metallic bond strength increases.

FAQs on Metallic Bonding

Q.1. Why does a metallic bond occur?
Ans: The metallic bond occurs due to the electrostatic force of attraction between delocalized electrons and kernels in the metal.

Q.2. How do metallic bond works?
Ans: In a metal, each kernel is surrounded by several valence electrons and vice versa. The valence electrons being very light, can move in the electron sea from one position to the other. The kernels being heavy, have comparatively negligible movement. The force of attraction between the positively charged kernels and the valence electron gives rise to the formation of metallic bonds.

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Q.3. What are the characteristics of metallic bonding?
Ans: Metallic bonds are non-directional, formed between the delocalized electrons and metal ions. This bond is observed only in solids.

Q.4. In ionic bond and metallic bond, which is stronger?
Ans: The ionic bond is formed between cation and anion by the electrostatic force of attraction. But in metallic bonds, the electrostatic force of attraction is between the kernel and delocalized electron. Therefore, an ionic bond is stronger than a metallic bond.

Q.5. How do you identify a metallic bond?
Ans: In a metallic bond, a metal ion is surrounded by delocalised electrons. Hence, they can be identified by passing electricity.

Q.6. Why does metallic bonding decrease down the group?
Ans: As we move down the group, the size of metal increases due to an increase in the number of shells. Hence, the attraction between the Kernel and delocalized electron decreases. This results in a decrease in the metallic bond down the group.

Q7. Which elements form a metallic bond?
Ans: Metals show the metallic bond. Metalloid and alloys are also shown metallic bonds.

We hope this article on Metallic Bonding has helped you. If you have any queries, drop a comment below and we will get back to you.

FAQs

Metallic Bonding: Definition, Types, & Properties? ›

A metallic bond is a type of chemical bond formed between positively charged atoms in which the free electrons are shared among a lattice of cations. In contrast, covalent and ionic bonds form between two discrete atoms. Metallic bonding is the main type of chemical bond that forms between metal atoms.

What are the properties of metallic bonding? ›

Metallic bonds

The metallic bond is the force of attraction between these free-moving (delocalised) electrons and positive metal ions . Metallic bonds are strong, so metals can maintain a regular structure and usually have high melting and boiling points. Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat.

What is meant by metallic bonding? ›

metallic bond, force that holds atoms together in a metallic substance. Such a solid consists of closely packed atoms. In most cases, the outermost electron shell of each of the metal atoms overlaps with a large number of neighbouring atoms.

What are 4 properties of metallic compounds? ›

Explanation:
• Very High melting and boiling points.
• Very Good Conductors of heat and electricity.
• Malleable (can be made into different shapes without breaking)
• Ductile (can be molded into wiring)
• Metallic luster (shiny)
• Sometimes magnetic.
Oct 26, 2015

What is metallic bond example? ›

Some metallic bond examples include magnesium, sodium and aluminum. Metallic bonding causes characteristics or traits that are typical of metals such as malleability, ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity, opacity and luster.

What are the 5 metallic properties? ›

Properties of metals
• high melting points.
• good conductors of electricity.
• good conductors of heat.
• high density.
• malleable.
• ductile.

What are 5 properties of ionic? ›

Properties Shared by Ionic Compounds
• They form crystals. ...
• They have high melting points and high boiling points. ...
• They have higher enthalpies of fusion and vaporization than molecular compounds. ...
• They're hard and brittle. ...
• They conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water. ...
• They're good insulators.
Mar 1, 2021

What are the 4 types of bonds? ›

Four main bonding types are discussed here: ionic, covalent, metallic, and molecular. Hydrogen-bonded solids, such as ice, make up another category that is important in a few crystals.

Who discovered metallic bonding? ›

In the early 1900's, Paul Drüde came up with the "sea of electrons" metallic bonding theory by modeling metals as a mixture of atomic cores (atomic cores = positive nuclei + inner shell of electrons) and valence electrons. Metallic bonds occur among metal atoms.

How metallic bonding is formed? ›

Metallic bonds are formed when the charge is spread over a larger distance as compared to the size of single atoms in solids. Mostly, in the periodic table, left elements form metallic bonds, for example, zinc and copper. Because metals are solid, their atoms are tightly packed in a regular arrangement.

What is the importance of metallic bonding? ›

Metallic bonding has a vital role in metal characteristics. The electrical conductivity of metals is caused by electron delocalization. Metallic Bonds also provides high heat conductivity and heat transfer via metallic materials. In metallic bonds, electrons can easily transport energy and electricity across the metal.

Are metallic bonds polar or nonpolar? ›

Metallic bonding is mostly non-polar, because even in alloys there is little difference among the electronegativities of the atoms participating in the bonding interaction (and, in pure elemental metals, none at all). Thus, metallic bonding is an extremely delocalized communal form of covalent bonding.

What are the 12 properties of metals? ›

Properties of Metals
• Metals can be hammered into thin sheets. It means they possess the property of malleability.
• Metals are ductile. ...
• Metals are a good conductor of heat and electricity.
• Metals are lustrous which means they have a shiny appearance.
• Metals have high tensile strength. ...
• Metals are sonorous. ...
• Metals are hard.

What are metallic properties? ›

Physical properties associated with metallic character include metallic luster, shiny appearance, high density, high thermal conductivity, and high electrical conductivity. Most metals are malleable and ductile and can be deformed without breaking.

What are the 3 main properties of metals? ›

Three properties of metals are:
• Luster: Metals are shiny when cut, scratched, or polished.
• Malleability: Metals are strong but malleable, which means that they can be easily bent or shaped. ...
• Conductivity: Metals are excellent conductors of electricity and heat.

What are covalent properties? ›

Properties of Covalent Compounds. Most covalent compounds have relatively low melting points and boiling points. While the ions in an ionic compound are strongly attracted to each other, covalent bonds create molecules that can separate from each other when a lower amount of energy is added to them.

What are ionic properties? ›

PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS

They are usually crystalline solids. They have high melting points and high boiling points. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents. They conduct electricity when dissolved in water or when melted.

What is properties of ionic bond? ›

Ionic Bond Properties

The ionic bonded molecules have high melting and boiling point. The ionic bonded molecules in their aqueous solutions or in the molten state are good conductors of electricity. This is due to the presence of ions which acts as charge carriers.

What are the 7 types of bonds? ›

Treasury bonds, GSE bonds, investment-grade bonds, high-yield bonds, foreign bonds, mortgage-backed bonds and municipal bonds - explained by Beth Stanton.

What are the 5 types of bonding? ›

There are five main types of bonds: Treasury, savings, agency, municipal, and corporate. Each type of bond has its own sellers, purposes, buyers, and levels of risk vs. return. If you want to take advantage of bonds, you can also buy securities that are based on bonds, such as bond mutual funds.

How do you name metallic bonds? ›

The following rules are followed when naming metallic (ionic) compounds.
1. The metal is named first. Its name is unchanged.
2. The anion is named last. ...
3. Many metals, especially transition metals, have more than one possible charge, such as copper.
May 18, 2015

Why are metallic bonds weak? ›

Whereas metallic bond results from partial attraction between the metal atoms and the mobile electrons constituting the metal. So, in metallic bond there is actually no overlapping between any two atoms. So,we can conclude that a covalent bond is more stronger than a metallic bond.

What are two metals bonding called? ›

Two metals combining together form an alloy, which is a solution rather than a compound.

What are effects of metallic bonding? ›

Metallic bonding generally results in a material being strong and stiff and gives: High elastic modulus. High strength. Good electrical conductivity (because the electrons can move easily)

Are metallic bonds stronger than ionic? ›

The metallic bond is somewhat weaker than the ionic and covalent bond. Ionic bonds are strong electrostatic attraction forces formed between positive and negative ions. This bond is non-directional, meaning that the pull of the electrons does not favor one atom over another.

Are metallic bonds malleable? ›

In metallic bonding, electrons are delocalized and move freely among nuclei. When a force is exerted n the metal, the nuclei shift, but the bonds do not break, giving metals their characteristic malleability. It can be easy to underestimate the importance of these metallic bonds.

Do metallic bonds share electrons? ›

There are two different types of chemical bondings: metallic and covalent. In metallic bonding, atoms adopt the strategy of sharing electrons. This behavior is distinctive from ionic bonds wherein one atom takes an electron, and the other one gives it away.

What is metallic bond Class 12? ›

Metallic bonding is the force of attraction between valence electrons and the metal atoms. It is the sharing of many detached electrons between many positive ions, where the electrons act as a "glue" giving the substance a definite structure. It is unlike covalent or ionic bonding.

How do you identify a metallic bond? ›

What Are Metallic Bonds | Properties of Matter | Chemistry | FuseSchool

What are metallic examples? ›

Examples of metal elements include iron, copper, silver, mercury, lead, aluminum, gold, platinum, zinc, nickel and tin.

What is covalent ionic and metallic bonding? ›

Ionic Bonds: Ionic bonds form when one atom provides electrons to another atom. Covalent Bonds: Covalent bonds form when two atom shares their valence electrons. Metallic Bonds: Metallic bonds form when a variable number of atoms share a variable number of electrons in a metal lattice.

Why is metallic bond important? ›

Metallic bonding has a vital role in metal characteristics. The electrical conductivity of metals is caused by electron delocalization. Metallic Bonds also provides high heat conductivity and heat transfer via metallic materials. In metallic bonds, electrons can easily transport energy and electricity across the metal.

What are two metals bonding called? ›

Two metals combining together form an alloy, which is a solution rather than a compound.

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